Navigating the Complexities of Negative Option Billing: A Guide for Subscription Businesses

Ensuring Compliance, Enhancing Trust: The Business Blueprint for Negative Option
FTC logo on transparent background
Source: FTC

With the FTC’s heightened focus on subscription practices, underscored by the upcoming live-streamed Click-to-Cancel hearing on January 16th, it’s imperative for subscription businesses to grasp the multifaceted concept of Negative Option billing. This guide aims to shed light on the FTC’s Negative Option rule, its historical backdrop, recent enforcement actions, and pivotal considerations for your business moving forward.


Source: Bigstock


“Negative Option” is the umbrella term for various types of subscription-based offerings, where goods or services are automatically delivered and charged for, unless the consumer explicitly declines or cancels the subscription before the delivery or billing period. While “Negative Option is the legal term, business and marketing executives across the industry tend to use different terms and ways their businesses implement a Negative Option program in their business, including:

  • Automatic Renewal Plans: Memberships or subscriptions automatically renew at the end of each term and continue until the consumer actively cancels.
  • Prenotification Plans: Consumers receive regular notifications about upcoming products and can choose to decline them within a certain timeframe. If they don’t, the item is sent automatically.
  • Continuity Plans: Consumers agree upfront to receive and be billed for products or services regularly until they cancel the subscription.
  • Auto-ship: Commonly used in the context of regularly receiving goods, such as vitamins or beauty products, and being billed for each shipment until cancellation.
  • Opt-out Plans: These are plans or agreements where the default is to receive and be charged for services or goods unless the consumer explicitly opts out.
  • Free-to-Pay/Nominal-Fee-to-Pay Conversion Plans: Consumers sign up for a free or low-cost trial period that converts to a full-price subscription if they don’t cancel before the trial ends.
  • Continuous Service Agreement: This is a more formal term for any agreement that continues until the consumer actively cancels.
  • Pre-checked Box Marketing: In online commerce, this refers to the practice of pre-checking a box to enroll consumers in additional services or subscriptions, which they must uncheck to opt-out.

Each of these terms or practices emphasizes a different aspect of the Negative Option billing model, but they all share the core characteristic of requiring the consumer to take action to avoid charges. And,the FTC consistently focuses on consumer protection concerns and regulatory principles, emphasizing clear disclosure, informed consent, and easy cancellation.

Here’s how it typically works:

  1. Trial Period: Consumers are usually offered a free trial or a discounted offer to sign up for a service or product.
  2. Automatic Enrollment: Once the trial period ends, the consumer is automatically enrolled in the service and charged the standard rate, unless they have taken action to cancel or opt-out.
  3. Recurring Charges: The charges continue on a recurring basis (monthly, quarterly, or annually) until the consumer cancels the subscription.

This practice is legal but can be controversial, especially if the terms are not made clear to consumers upfront. For some companies and purposeful bad actors, they avoid best current best-practices for subscriber engagement, renewal and cancellation and instead rely on inertia and the likelihood that people will forget to cancel or find the process of cancellation cumbersome. Due to this, regulatory bodies in the US, states and various countries often scrutinize and regulate Negative Option billing to protect consumers from deceptive or unfair practices. 

Source: Bigstock

History of Negative Option Marketing & Regulation

The history of Negative Option billing dates back many decades, evolving alongside consumer culture, technology, and subscription services. Here’s a brief overview:

✅ Early 20th Century

  • Book Clubs and Mail Orders: Negative Option billing gained popularity with book clubs and mail-order services in the early to mid-20th century. Companies like the Book of the Month Club would send members a book each month unless the member declined the selection in advance. This model was attractive to consumers for its convenience and to companies for its steady revenue.

✅ Late 20th Century

  • Expansion into Other Industries: The model expanded beyond books to music, with the rise of Columbia House and BMG Music Service, which offered significant initial deals on CDs and records with the commitment to purchase more over time. It also spread to other goods and services.
  • Regulation Begins: As the practice grew, so did consumer complaints, often about the difficulty of canceling subscriptions and the lack of transparency. This led to regulatory scrutiny and the implementation of consumer protection laws in various countries. In the U.S., for instance, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) began to impose regulations to ensure clear disclosure of terms and easy cancellation processes in 1973.

✅ Early 21st Century

  • Online Subscriptions and Services: With the advent of the internet, Negative Option billing found a new and fertile ground. Online services, software subscriptions, and streaming platforms began to utilize the model extensively. Consumers could sign up for a service with a few clicks, often starting with a free trial period that would convert to a paid subscription automatically.
  • Increased Regulatory Attention: The increase in online subscriptions led to a rise in consumer complaints about practices perceived as deceptive. Regulators responded with more stringent rules and enforcement. For example, the “Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act” (ROSCA) was passed in the U.S. in 2010 to further protect consumers from online Negative Option billing.

✅ Recent Trends

  • Continued Popularity in Digital Subscriptions: Negative Option billing remains popular in the digital age, with many streaming services, software providers, and other online platforms using it as a standard business practice.
  • Greater Consumer Awareness and Control: Modern consumers are more aware of Negative Option billing and its potential pitfalls. Many are more vigilant about monitoring subscriptions and canceling those they no longer need. Additionally, some new services have emerged to help consumers manage and cancel unwanted subscriptions.
  • Ongoing Regulatory Evolution: As the digital landscape evolves, so do the strategies companies use to retain subscribers, and consequently, the regulations governing these practices continue to evolve. 

✅ 2023 Actions:

  • In 2023, the FTC took action against Amazon, Home Advisor, Chargebacks911, and many other companies for violating Negative Option rules, highlighting the need to stay on top of evolving regulations.
  • In addition, in March 2023, the FTC initiated a process to update the regulations governing Negative Option billing, reflecting its commitment to modernizing consumer protections in an evolving marketplace. This action aimed to address the growing concerns around transparency, consent, and customer autonomy in subscription-based services. During 2023, the FTC sought public comment and input from various stakeholders, intending to refine and clarify the rules around disclosure, consent, and cancellation practices. This initiative was part of a broader effort to ensure that businesses engage in fair practices while providing consumers with clear choices and easy opt-out options, thereby preventing deceptive and unfair billing practices. The final step in this process is an online live-streamed hearing, focused on the cancellation process of subscriptions and how much that needs to be regulated.  After this hearing, the FTC will in 2024 announce any updates to Negative Option that businesses need to comply with.


Source: Bigstock

Negative Option Regulation Primer

Negative Option regulation typically includes several key components designed to protect consumers from deceptive or unfair practices while allowing businesses to use this billing method under clear guidelines. 

Here are the main components usually found in Negative Option regulations:

1) Clear and Conspicuous Disclosure

  • Full Terms: Businesses must clearly disclose the full terms and conditions of the offer before a consumer consents to pay, including the duration of any trial period, the regular price after the trial, the billing frequency, and the product or service description.
  • Visibility: The terms must be prominently displayed and not hidden in fine print or obscured by complex language.

2) Informed Consent

  •  Affirmative Agreement: Consumers must provide explicit consent to the Negative Option feature before being enrolled. This means they need to take affirmative action, like checking a box or clicking a button, indicating they understand and agree to the terms.
  • Separate Acknowledgment: The consent for the Negative Option feature should be separate from other consents, ensuring that consumers are fully aware of what they are agreeing to.

3) Easy Cancellation

  • Simple Process: The process for canceling a subscription or service must be straightforward and easy for consumers to complete.
  • Multiple Channels: Ideally, businesses should provide multiple ways for consumers to cancel, such as online, by phone, or by mail.
  • Prompt Execution: Cancellation requests should be honored promptly without unnecessary delays.

4) Adequate Notification

  •  Upfront Notice: Consumers should receive a clear notification about the upcoming charges, especially after a free trial or introductory period is about to end.
  •  Regular Statements: Regular billing statements or notifications can help ensure consumers are aware of ongoing subscriptions and charges.

5) Record Keeping

  •  Documentation: Businesses should keep detailed records of consumer consent and all communications related to the Negative Option feature.
  •  Proof of Compliance: In case of disputes or regulatory inquiries, businesses need to provide evidence that they complied with all regulations.

6) Penalties for Non-Compliance

  •  Fines and Sanctions: Regulatory bodies often impose fines, sanctions, or other penalties on businesses that fail to comply with Negative Option regulations.
  •  Consumer Remedies: Consumers may have the right to chargebacks or refunds for charges incurred due to non-compliance.


Wooden judge gavel and stack of legal book on table. Laws, legal system and court concept.
Source: Bigstock

Examples of Regulatory Frameworks:

Negative Option regulations are subject to change and can vary by jurisdiction. It’s important for both consumers and businesses to be aware of and understand the specific regulations that apply to their transactions.

  • United States: The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) enforces Negative Option rules under various acts, including the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act (ROSCA), and the FTC Act.
  • European Union: Consumer protection directives provide guidelines for transparency and consent, and member states may have additional regulations.

Remember, many U.S. states have their Negative Option regulations, often with enhanced consumer protections or specific industry focuses. This variability means businesses operating across states must be particularly diligent in ensuring compliance with each jurisdiction’s rules.

Enhanced Consumer Protections

  • Stricter Disclosure Requirements: Some states require more detailed or prominently displayed disclosures than federal regulations.
  • Extended Cancellation Periods: States may mandate longer grace periods or extended times for consumers to cancel subscriptions without penalty.

Specific Product or Service Focus

  • Some states have regulations targeting specific industries where Negative Option billing is prevalent, such as fitness clubs, wine memberships/clubs, magazines, or timeshares.

Additional Notice Requirements

  • States may require businesses to send additional notifications to consumers before renewals or at the end of a trial period.

Varied Enforcement and Penalties

  • Enforcement mechanisms and penalties for non-compliance can vary significantly from state to state.

Examples of State-Level Regulations:

  • California: Known for having stringent consumer protection laws, California requires clear and conspicuous disclosure of the terms, easy cancellation methods, and affirmative consent. It also mandates that companies provide an acknowledgment of the terms, cancellation policy, and a copy of the contract after the transaction.
  • New York: New York law requires businesses to clearly disclose the terms of the agreement and obtain affirmative consent. It also mandates that consumers receive a timely notice before the automatic renewal of certain contracts.
  • Florida: Florida has specific statutes governing Negative Option plans, including requirements for clear disclosure and the provision of cancellation procedures.

Compliance Challenges

  • Variability: Because state laws can vary widely, businesses operating in multiple states must be particularly vigilant to comply with each state’s regulations.
  • Updates and Changes: State laws can change, and new regulations can be introduced. Businesses need to stay informed about the current legal landscape.


Businesses engaging in Negative Option billing must ensure they are not only compliant with federal regulations but also with the laws of the states where their customers reside. Consumers, on the other hand, benefit from understanding both federal and their own state’s protections when it comes to Negative Option offers. Legal advice is often necessary to navigate the complexities of these regulations effectively.

We recommend several actions:

✅ Legal Advice: Ensure your team includes a lawyer well-versed in, and with significant experience, navigating these laws. A lawyer not well enough versed in the nuances of regulation and defending companies at the state or federal level can either be too strict (resulting in lost revenue due to lower conversion) or too liberal (putting your business at legal risk.) The laws are evolving, so make sure your business is set up to evolve with them.

✅ Annual Audit: We also recommend your business and legal team do an audit of your UI, subscription flow, and messaging from initial sign-up to cancellation annually. With laws changing, this annual audit will ensure you are staying on the right side of the law.

✅  Tune in to the FTC’s Click-to-Cancel Live Stream: Don’t miss the FTC’s Click-to-Cancel Live Stream on January 16, 2024, at 10 AM (on the website). As the agency finalizes its review process started in March of 2023 to update Negative Option regulations, your participation is crucial for ensuring compliance and maintaining a competitive edge in your business.

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